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therefore, we suggest that the improvement of the young’s modulus might be a strain-rate-dependent process, rather than an annealing-induced phase transition of the crystals. higher than critical strain rates cause crystal structure relaxation and lead to a decrease of young’s modulus. the reverse occurs if the critical strain rate is reached. the primary reason for a reduction of the young’s modulus as a result of annealing is associated with the temperature gradient around the crystal. since the crystal is heated more rapidly than it is cooled, a greater pressure is exerted on the crystal, with subsequent crystal structure relaxation. although annealing the crystals is a useful tool for improving the young’s modulus of the crystals, the young’s modulus at different strain rates should be systematically measured to provide the best results.
we can also speculate on the possible mechanism for the apparent decrease of the young’s modulus at low strain rates. a crystal in a pure state has an isotropic young’s modulus. however, the young’s modulus of a crystal with induced disorder, such as in a glass, is anisotropic, and may be closer to that of a polycrystalline sample. in a single crystal, dislocation cells in the sample reduce the young’s modulus in the longitudinal direction but not in the transverse direction, although anisotropy increases with decreasing longitudinal strain (caswell, 1975). at constant strain rate, the young’s modulus will not be independent of strain rate; at a certain strain rate, the material will reach the yield point, which is predicted to be a function of strain rate. with an increase of the annealing temperature, more of the dislocations are likely to ‘run’ from one crystallite to the next, which should cause greater reduction of the young’s modulus. finally, the reverse effect is expected if the crystals are reheated to room temperature, and we predict that the young’s modulus will have increased from this point.
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analysis of thin films and coatings is based on the same principles of xrpd, but with further beam conditioning and angular control. typical examples include, but are not limited to, phase identification, crystalline quality, residual stress, texture analysis, thickness determination and composition vs strain analysis. analysis of thin films and coatings is focusing on properties of layered materials with nm to m thickness, ranging from amorphous and poly-crystalline coatings to epitaxially grown films. the d8 advance and the diffrac.suite software enable high quality analyses of thin films including: